Have a look at the stages in Dick and Carey model...
Stage 1. Instructional Goals
* Instructional Goal: Desirable state of affairs by instruction* Needs Analysis : Analysis of a discrepancy between an instructional goal and the present state of affairs or a personal perception of needs.
Stage 2. Instructional Analysis
* Purpose : To determine the skills involved in reaching a goal* Task Analysis (procedural analysis) : about the product of which would be a list of steps and the skills used at each step in the procedure* Information-Processing Analysis : about the mental operations used by a person who has learned a complex skills* Learning-Task Analysis : about the objectives of instruction that involve intellectual skills
Stage 3. Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics
* Purpose : To determine which of the required enabling skills the learners bring to the learning task* Intellectual skills* Abilities such as verbal comprehension and spatial orientation* Traits of personality
Stage 4. Performance Objectives
* Purpose : To translate the needs and goals into specific and detailed objectives* Functions : Determining whether the instruction related to its goals. Focusing the lesson planning upon appropriate conditions of learning Guiding the development of measures of learner performance Assisting learners in their study efforts.
Stage 5. Criterion-Referenced Test Items
*To diagnose an individual possessions of the necessary prerequisites for learning new skills*To check the results of student learning during the process of a lesson*To provide document of students progress for parents or administrators*Useful in evaluating the instructional system itself (Formative/ Summative evaluation)*Early determination of performance measures before development of lesson plan and instructional materials
Stage 6. Instructional Strategy
* Purpose : To outline how instructional activities will relate to the accomplishment of the objectives*The best lesson design : Demonstrating knowledge about the learners, tasks reflected in the objectives, and effectiveness of teaching strategies
e.g. Choice of delivering system. Teacher-led, Group-paced vs. Learner-centered, Learner-paced
Stage 7. Instructional Materials
* Purpose : To select printed or other media intended to convey events of instruction.* Use of existing materials when it is possible* Need for development of new materials, otherwise* Role of teacher : It depends on the choice of delivery system
Stage 8. Formative Evaluation
* Purpose : To provide data for revising and improving instructional materials* To revise the instruction so as to make it as effective as possible for larger number of students* One on One : One evaluator sitting with one learner to interview* Small Group* Field Trial
Stage 9. Summative Evaluation
* Purpose : To study the effectiveness of system as a whole* Conducted after the system has passed through its formative stage* Small scale/ Large Scale* Short period/ Long period
Going through these stpes i dont find anything innovative.ADDIE,Gagne,Bloom in another bottle.May be the instructional designers wanted to create a separate theory on each and every event they face or they wanted to be in the limelight so that they would be called as instructional thinkers!!!!Any Tom, Dick AND Carey may do this!!